Ξενοφώντος Συμπόσιον Η

THE SYMPOSIUM or The Banquet by Xenofon, Translation by H. G. Dakyns

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῾Ο μὲν δὴ Συρακόσιος ἐξελθὼν συνεκροτεῖτο· ὁ δὲ Σωκράτης πάλιν αὖ καινοῦ λόγου κατῆρχεν. With these words the Syracusan made his exit, bent on organising his performance.1 As soon as he was gone, Socrates once more essayed a novel argument.2 He thus addressed them:
᾿Αρ᾿, ἔφη, ὦ ἄνδρες, εἰκὸς ἡμᾶς παρόντος δαίμονος μεγάλου καὶ τῷ μὲν χρόνῳ ἰσήλικος τοῖς ἀειγενέσι θεοῖς, τῇ δὲ μορφῇ νεωτάτου, καὶ μεγέθει πάντα ἐπέχοντος, ψυχῇ δὲ ἀνθρώπου ἱδρυμένου, ῎Ερωτος, μὴ [ἂν] ἀμνημονῆσαι, ἄλλως τε καὶ ἐπειδὴ πάντες ἐσμὲν τοῦ θεοῦ τούτου θιασῶται; ἐγώ τε γὰρ οὐκ ἔχω χρόνον εἰπεῖν ἐν ᾧ οὐκ ἐρῶν τινος διατελῶ, Χαρμίδην δὲ τόνδε οἶδα πολλοὺς μὲν ἐραστὰς κτησάμενον, ἔστι δὲ ὧν καὶ αὐτὸν ἐπιθυμήσαντα· Κριτόβουλός γε μὴν ἔτι καὶ νῦν ἐρώμενος ὢν ἤδη ἄλλων ἐπιθυμεῖ. ᾿Αλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ Νικήρατος, ὡς ἐγὼ ἀκούω, ἐρῶν τῆς γυναικὸς ἀντερᾶται. ῾Ερμογένη γε μὴν τίς ἡμῶν οὐκ οἶδεν ὡς, ὅ τι ποτ᾿ ἐστὶν ἡ καλοκἀγαθία, τῷ ταύτης ἔρωτι κατατήκεται; Οὐχ ὁρᾶτε ὡς σπουδαῖαι μὲν αὐτοῦ αἱ ὀφρύες, ἀτρεμὲς δὲ τὸ ὄμμα, μέτριοι δὲ οἱ λόγοι, πραεῖα δὲ ἡ φωνή, ἱλαρὸν δὲ τὸ ἦθος; Τοῖς δὲ σεμνοτάτοις θεοῖς φίλοις χρώμενος οὐδὲν ἡμᾶς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ὑπερορᾷ; Σὺ δὲ μόνος, ὦ ᾿Αντίσθενες, οὐδενὸς ἐρᾷς; It were but reasonable, sirs, on our part not to ignore the mighty power here present,3 a divinity in point of age coequal with the everlasting gods, yet in outward form the youngest,4 who in magnitude embraces all things, and yet his shrine is planted in the soul of man. Love5 is his name! and least of all should we forget him who are one and all votaries of this god.6 For myself I cannot name the time at which I have not been in love with some one.7 And Charmides here has, to my knowledge, captivated many a lover, while his own soul has gone out in longing for the love of not a few himself.8 So it is with Critobulus also; the beloved of yesterday is become the lover of to-day. Ay, and Niceratus, as I am told, adores his wife, and is by her adored.9 As to Hermogenes, which of us needs to be told10 that the soul of this fond lover is consumed with passion for a fair ideal--call it by what name you will--the spirit blent of nobleness and beauty.11 See you not what chaste severity dwells on his brow;12 how tranquil his gaze;13 how moderate his words; how gentle his intonation; now radiant his whole character. And if he enjoys the friendship of the most holy gods, he keeps a place in his regard for us poor mortals. But how is it that you alone, Antisthenes, you misanthrope, love nobody?
Ναὶ μὰ τοὺς θεούς, εἶπεν ἐκεῖνος, καὶ σφόδρα γε σοῦ. Nay, so help me Heaven! (he replied), but I do love most desperately yourself, O Socrates!
Καὶ ὁ Σωκράτης ἐπισκώψας ὡς δὴ θρυπτόμενος εἶπε· Μὴ νῦν μοι ἐν τῷ παρόντι ὄχλον πάρεχε· ὡς γὰρ ὁρᾷς, ἄλλα πράττω. Whereat Socrates, still carrying on the jest, with a coy, coquettish air,14 replied: Yes; only please do not bother me at present. I have other things to do, you see.
Καὶ ὁ ᾿Αντισθένης ἔλεξεν· ῾Ως σαφῶς μέντοι σὺ μαστροπὲ σαυτοῦ ἀεὶ τοιαῦτα ποιεῖς· τοτὲ μὲν τὸ δαιμόνιον προφασιζόμενος οὐ διαλέγῃ μοι, τοτὲ δ᾿ ἄλλου του ἐφιέμενος. Antisthenes replied: How absolutely true to your own character, arch go-between!15 It is always either your familiar oracle won't suffer you, that's your pretext, and so you can't converse with me; or you are bent upon something or somebody else.
Καὶ ὁ Σωκράτης ἔφη· ?nbsp;ρὸς τῶν θεῶν, ὦ ᾿Αντίσθενες, μόνον μὴ συγκόψῃς με· τὴν δ᾿ ἄλλην χαλεπότητα ἐγώ σου καὶ φέρω καὶ οἴσω φιλικῶς. ᾿Αλλὰ γάρ, ἔφη, τὸν μὲν σὸν ἔρωτα κρύπτωμεν, ἐπειδὴ καὶ ἔστιν οὐ ψυχῆς ἀλλ᾿ εὐμορφίας τῆς ἐμῆς. ὅτι γε μὴν σύ, ὦ Καλλία, ἐρᾷς Αὐτολύκου πᾶσα μὲν ἡ πόλις οἶδε, πολλοὺς δ᾿ οἶμαι καὶ τῶν ξένων. Τούτου δ᾿ αἴτιον τὸ πατέρων τε ὀνομαστῶν ἀμφοτέρους ὑμᾶς εἶναι καὶ αὐτοὺς ἐπιφανεῖς. ᾿Αεὶ μὲν οὖν ἔγωγε ?nbsp;γάμην τὴν σὴν φύσιν, νῦν δὲ καὶ πολὺ μᾶλλον, ἐπεὶ ὁρῶ σε ἐρῶντα οὐχ ἁβρότητι χλιδαινομένου οὐδὲ μαλακίᾳ θρυπτομένου, ἀλλὰ πᾶσιν ἐπιδεικνυμένου ῥώμην τε καὶ καρτερίαν καὶ ἀνδρείαν καὶ σωφροσύνην. Τὸ δὲ τοιούτων ἐπιθυμεῖν τεκμήριόν ἐστι τῆς τοῦ ἐραστοῦ φύσεως. Then Socrates: For Heaven's sake, don't carbonado16 me, Antisthenes, that's all. Any other savagery on your part I can stand, and will stand, as a lover should. However (he added), the less we say about your love the better, since it is clearly an attachment not to my soul, but to my lovely person.

And then, turning to Callias: And that you, Callias, do love

Autolycus, this whole city knows and half the world besides,17 if I am not mistaken; and the reason is that you are both sons of famous fathers, and yourselves illustrious. For my part I have ever admired your nature, but now much more so, when I see that you are in love with one who does not wanton in luxury or languish in effeminacy,18 but who displays to all his strength, his hardihood, his courage, and sobriety of soul. To be enamoured of such qualities as these is a proof itself of a true lover's nature.

Εἰ μὲν οὖν μία ἐστὶν ᾿Αφροδίτη ἢ διτταί, Οὐρανία τε καὶ ?nbsp;άνδημος, οὐκ οἶδα· καὶ γὰρ Ζεὺς ὁ αὐτὸς δοκῶν εἶναι πολλὰς ἐπωνυμίας ἔχει· ὅτι γε μέντοι χωρὶς ἑκατέρᾳ βωμοί τε καὶ ναοί εἰσι καὶ θυσίαι τῇ μὲν ?nbsp;ανδήμῳ ῥᾳδιουργότεραι, τῇ δὲ Οὐρανίᾳ ἁγνότεραι, οἶδα. Εἰκάσαις δ᾿ ἂν καὶ τοὺς ἔρωτας τὴν μὲν ?nbsp;άνδημον τῶν σωμάτων ἐπιπέμπειν, τὴν δ᾿ Οὐρανίαν τῆς ψυχῆς τε καὶ τῆς φιλίας καὶ τῶν καλῶν ἔργων. ὑφ᾿ οὗ δὴ καὶ σύ, ὦ Καλλία, κατέχεσθαι μοι δοκεῖς ἔρωτος. Τεκμαίρομαι δὲ τῇ τοῦ ἐρωμένου καλοκἀγαθίᾳ καὶ ὅτι σε ὁρῶ τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ παραλαμβάνοντα εἰς τὰς πρὸς τοῦτον συνουσίας. Οὐδὲν γὰρ τούτων ἐστὶν ἀπόκρυφον πατρὸς τῷ καλῷ τε κἀγαθῷ ἐραστῇ. Whether indeed Aphrodite be one or twain19 in personality, the heavenly and the earthly, I cannot tell, for Zeus, who is one and indivisible, bears many titles.20 But this thing I know, that these twain have separate altars, shrines, and sacrifices,21 as befits their nature--she that is earthly, of a lighter and a laxer sort; she that is heavenly, purer and holier in type. And you may well conjecture, it is the earthly goddess, the common Aphrodite, who sends forth the bodily loves; while from her that is named of heaven, Ourania, proceed those loves which feed upon the soul, on friendship and on noble deeds. It is by this latter, Callias, that you are held in bonds, if I mistake not, Love divine.22 This I infer as well from the fair and noble character of your friend, as from the fact that you invite his father to share your life and intercourse.23 Since no part of these is hidden from the father by the fair and noble lover.
Καὶ ὁ ῾Ερμογένης εἶπε· Νὴ τὴν ῞Ηραν, ἔφη, ὦ Σώκρατες, ἄλλα τέ σου πολλὰ ἄγαμαι καὶ ὅτι νῦν ἅμα χαριζόμενος Καλλίᾳ καὶ παιδεύεις αὐτὸν οἷόνπερ χρὴ εἶναι. Hermogenes broke in: By Hera, Socrates, I much admire you for many things, and now to see how in the act of gratifying Callias you are training him in duty and true excellence.24
Νὴ Δί᾿, ἔφη, ὅπως δὲ καὶ ἔτι μᾶλλον εὐφραίνηται, βούλομαι αὐτῷ μαρτυρῆσαι ὡς καὶ πολὺ κρείττων ἐστὶν ὁ τῆς ψυχῆς ἢ ὁ τοῦ σώματος ἔρως. ὅτι μὲν γὰρ δὴ ἄνευ φιλίας συνουσία οὐδεμία ἀξιόλογος πάντες ἐπιστάμεθα. Φιλεῖν γε μὴν τῶν μὲν τὸ ἦθος ἀγαμένων ἀνάγκη ἡδεῖα καὶ ἐθελουσία καλεῖται· τῶν δὲ τοῦ σώματος ἐπιθυμούντων πολλοὶ μὲν τοὺς τρόπους μέμφονται καὶ μισοῦσι τῶν ἐρωμένων· ἂν δὲ καὶ ἀμφότερα στέρξωσι, τὸ μὲν τῆς ὥρας ἄνθος ταχὺ δήπου παρακμάζει, ἀπολείποντος δὲ τούτου ἀνάγκη καὶ τὴν φιλίαν συναπομαραίνεσθαι, ἡ δὲ ψυχὴ ὅσονπερ ἂν χρόνον ἴῃ ἐπὶ τὸ φρονιμώτερον καὶ ἀξιεραστοτέρα γίγνεται. Why, yes (he said), if only that his cup of happiness may overflow, I wish to testify to him how far the love of soul is better than the love of body.

Without friendship,25 as we full well know, there is no society of any worth. And this friendship, what is it? On the part of those whose admiration26 is bestowed upon the inner disposition, it is well named a sweet and voluntary compulsion. But among those whose desire26 is for the body, there are not a few who blame, nay hate, the ways of their beloved ones. And even where attachment26 clings to both,27 even so the bloom of beauty after all does quickly reach its prime; the flower withers, and when that fails, the affection which was based upon it must also wither up and perish. But the soul, with every step she makes in her onward course towards deeper wisdom, grows ever worthier of love.

Καὶ μὴν ἐν μὲν τῇ τῆς μορφῆς χρήσει ἔνεστί τις καὶ κόρος, ὥστε ἅπερ καὶ πρὸς τὰ σιτία διὰ πλησμονήν, ταῦτα ἀνάγκη καὶ πρὸς τὰ παιδικὰ πάσχειν· ἡ δὲ τῆς ψυχῆς φιλία διὰ τὸ ἁγνὴ εἶναι καὶ ἀκορεστοτέρα ἐστίν, οὐ μέντοι, ὥς γ᾿ ἄν τις οἰηθείη, διὰ τοῦτο καὶ ἀνεπαφροδιτοτέρα, ἀλλὰ σαφῶς καὶ ἀποτελεῖται ἡ εὐχὴ ἐν ᾗ αἰτούμεθα τὴν θεὸν ἐπαφρόδιτα καὶ ἔπη καὶ ἔργα διδόναι. Ay, and in the enjoyment of external beauty a sort of surfeit is engendered. Just as the eater's appetite palls through repletion with regard to meats,28 so will the feelings of a lover towards his idol.

But the soul's attachment, owing to its purity, knows no satiety.29

Yet not therefore, as a man might fondly deem, has it less of the character of loveliness.30 But very clearly herein is our prayer fulfilled, in which we beg the goddess to grant us words and deeds that bear the impress of her own true loveliness.31

ὡς μὲν γὰρ ἄγαταί τε καὶ φιλεῖ τὸν ἐρώμενον θάλλουσα μορφῇ τε ἐλευθερίᾳ καὶ ἤθει αἰδήμονί τε καὶ γενναίῳ ψυχὴ εὐθὺς ἐν τοῖς ἥλιξιν ἡγεμονική τε ἅμα καὶ φιλόφρων οὖσα οὐδὲν ἐπιδεῖται λόγου· ὅτι δὲ εἰκὸς καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν παιδικῶν τὸν τοιοῦτον ἐραστὴν ἀντιφιλεῖσθαι, καὶ τοῦτο διδάξω. That a soul whose bloom is visible alike in beauty of external form, free and unfettered, and an inner disposition, bashful, generous; a spirit32 at once imperial and affable,33 born to rule among its fellows--that such a being will, of course, admire and fondly cling to his beloved, is a thesis which needs no further argument on my part. Rather I will essay to teach you, how it is natural that this same type of lover should in turn be loved by his soul's idol.34
?nbsp;ρῶτον μὲν γὰρ τίς μισεῖν δύναιτ᾿ ἂν ὑφ᾿ οὗ εἰδείη καλός τε καὶ ἀγαθὸς νομιζόμενος; ἔπειτα δὲ ὁρῴη αὐτὸν τὰ τοῦ παιδὸς καλὰ μᾶλλον ἢ τὰ ἑαυτοῦ ἡδέα σπουδάζοντα; ?nbsp;ρὸς δὲ τούτοις πιστεύοι μήτ᾿ ἂν παρά τι ποιήσῃ μήτ᾿ ἂν καμὼν ἀμορφότερος γένηται, μειωθῆναι ἂν τὴν φιλίαν; How, in the first place, is it possible for him to hate a lover who, he knows, regards him as both beautiful and good?35 and, in the next place, one who, it is clear, is far more anxious to promote the fair estate of him he loves36 than to indulge his selfish joys? and above all, when he has faith and trust that neither dereliction,37 nor loss of beauty through sickness, nor aught else, will diminish their affection.
Οἷς γε μὴν κοινὸν τὸ φιλεῖσθαι, πῶς οὐκ ἀνάγκη τούτους ἡδέως μὲν προσορᾶν ἀλλήλους, εὐνοϊκῶς δὲ διαλέγεσθαι, πιστεύειν δὲ καὶ πιστεύεσθαι, καὶ προνοεῖν μὲν ἀλλήλων, συνήδεσθαι δ᾿ ἐπὶ ταῖς καλαῖς πράξεσι, συνάχθεσθαι δὲ ἄν τι σφάλμα προσπίπτῃ, τότε δ᾿ εὐφραινομένους διατελεῖν, ὅταν ὑγιαίνοντες συνῶσιν, ἂν δὲ κάμῃ ὁπότερος οὖν, πολὺ συνεχεστέραν τὴν συνουσίαν ἔχειν, καὶ ἀπόντων ἔτι μᾶλλον ἢ παρόντων ἐπιμελεῖσθαι; Οὐ ταῦτα πάντα ἐπαφρόδιτα; Διά γέ τοι τὰ τοιαῦτα ἔργα ἅμα ἐρῶντες τῆς φιλίας καὶ χρώμενοι αὐτῇ εἰς γῆρας διατελοῦσι. If, then, they own a mutual devotion,38 how can it but be, they will take delight in gazing each into the other's eyes, hold kindly converse, trust and be trusted, have forethought for each other, in success rejoice together, in misfortune share their troubles; and so long as health endures make merry cheer, day in day out; or if either of them should fall on sickness, then will their intercourse be yet more constant; and if they cared for one another face to face, much more will they care when parted.39 Are not all these the outward tokens of true loveliness?40 In the exercise of such sweet offices, at any rate, they show their passion for holy friendship's state, and prove its bliss, continuously pacing life's path from youth to eld.
Τὸν δὲ ἐκ τοῦ σώματος κρεμάμενον διὰ τί ἀντιφιλήσειεν ἂν ὁ παῖς; ?nbsp;ότερον ὅτι ἑαυτῷ μὲν νέμει ὧν ἐπιθυμεῖ, τῷ δὲ παιδὶ τὰ ἐπονειδιστότατα; ἢ διότι ἃ σπεύδει πράττειν παρὰ τῶν παιδικῶν, εἴργει μάλιστα τοὺς οἰκείους ἀπὸ τούτων; But the lover who depends upon the body,41 what of him? First, why should love-for-love be given to such a lover? because, forsooth, he bestows upon himself what he desires, and upon his minion things of dire reproach? or that what he hastens to exact, infallibly must separate that other from his nearest friends?
Καὶ μὴν ὅτι γε οὐ βιάζεται, ἀλλὰ πείθει, διὰ τοῦτο μᾶλλον μισητέος. ῾Ο μὲν γὰρ βιαζόμενος ἑαυτὸν πονηρὸν ἀποδεικνύει, ὁ δὲ πείθων τὴν τοῦ ἀναπειθομένου ψυχὴν διαφθείρει. If it be pleaded that persuasion is his instrument, not violence; is that no reason rather for a deeper loathing? since he who uses violence42 at any rate declares himself in his true colours as a villain, while the tempter corrupts the soul of him who yields to his persuasions.
᾿Αλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ χρημάτων γε ἀπεμπολῶν τὴν ὥραν τί μᾶλλον στέρξει τὸν πριάμενον ἢ ὁ ἐν ἀγορᾷ πωλῶν καὶ ἀποδιδόμενος; Οὐ μὴν ὅτι γε ὡραῖος ἀώρῳ, οὐδὲ ὅτι γε καλὸς οὐκέτι καλῷ καὶ ἐρῶντι οὐκ ἐρῶν ὁμιλεῖ, φιλήσει αὐτόν. Οὐδὲ γὰρ ὁ παῖς τῷ ἀνδρὶ ὥσπερ γυνὴ κοινωνεῖ τῶν ἐν τοῖς ἀφροδισίοις εὐφροσυνῶν, ἀλλὰ νήφων μεθύοντα ὑπὸ τῆς ἀφροδίτης θεᾶται. Ay, and how should he who traffics with his beauty love the purchaser, any more than he who keeps a stall in the market-place and vends to the highest bidder? Love springs not up, I trow, because the one is in his prime, and the other's bloom is withered, because fair is mated with what is not fair, and hot lips are pressed to cold. Between man and woman it is different. There the wife at any rate shares with her husband in their nuptial joys; but here conversely, the one is sober and with unimpassioned eye regards his fellow, who is drunken with the wine of passion.43
᾿Εξ ὧν οὐδὲν θαυμαστὸν εἰ καὶ τὸ ὑπερορᾶν ἐγγίγνεται αὐτῷ τοῦ ἐραστοῦ. Καὶ σκοπῶν δ᾿ ἄν τις εὕροι ἐκ μὲν τῶν διὰ τοὺς τρόπους φιλουμένων οὐδὲν χαλεπὸν γεγενημένον, ἐκ δὲ τῆς ἀναιδοῦς ὁμιλίας πολλὰ ἤδη καὶ ἀνόσια πεπραγμένα. Wherefore it is no marvel if, beholding, there springs up in his breast the bitterest contempt and scorn for such a lover. Search and you shall find that nothing harsh was ever yet engendered by attachment based on moral qualities; whilst shameless intercourse, time out of mind, has been the source of countless hateful and unhallowed deeds.44
ὡς δὲ καὶ ἀνελεύθερος ἡ συνουσία τῷ τὸ σῶμα μᾶλλον ἢ τῷ τὴν ψυχὴν ἀγαπῶντι, νῦν τοῦτο δηλώσω. ῾Ο μὲν γὰρ παιδεύων λέγειν τε ἃ δεῖ καὶ πράττειν δικαίως ἂν ὥσπερ Χείρων καὶ Φοῖνιξ ὑπ᾿ ᾿Αχιλλέως τιμῷτο, ὁ δὲ τοῦ σώματος ὀρεγόμενος εἰκότως ἂν ὥσπερ πτωχὸς περιέποιτο. ᾿Αεὶ γάρ τοι προσαιτῶν καὶ προσδεόμενος ἢ φιλήματος ἢ ἄλλου τινὸς ψηλαφήματος παρακολουθεῖ. I have next to show that the society of him whose love is of the body, not the soul, is in itself illiberal. The true educator who trains another in the path of virtue, who will teach us excellence, whether of speech or conduct,45 may well be honoured, even as Cheiron and Phoenix46 were honoured by Achilles. But what can he expect, who stretches forth an eager hand to clutch the body, save to be treated47 as a beggar? That is his character; for ever cringing and petitioning a kiss, or some other soft caress,48 this sorry suitor dogs his victims.
Εἰ δὲ λαμυρώτερον λέγω, μὴ θαυμάζετε· ὅ τε γὰρ οἶνος συνεπαίρει καὶ ὁ ἀεὶ σύνοικος ἐμοὶ ἔρως κεντρίζει εἰς τὸν ἀντίπαλον ἔρωτα αὐτῷ παρρησιάζεσθαι. Καὶ γὰρ δὴ δοκεῖ μοι ὁ μὲν τῷ εἴδει τὸν νοῦν προσέχων μεμισθωμένῳ χῶρον ἐοικέναι. Οὐ γὰρ ὅπως πλείονος ἄξιος γένηται ἐπιμελεῖται, ἀλλ᾿ ὅπως αὐτὸς ὅτι πλεῖστα ὡραῖα καρπώσεται. ῾Ο δὲ τῆς φιλίας ἐφιέμενος μᾶλλον ἔοικε τῷ τὸν οἰκεῖον ἀγρὸν κεκτημένῳ· πάντοθεν γοῦν φέρων ὅ τι ἂν δύνηται πλείονος ἄξιον ποιεῖ τὸν ἐρώμενον. If my language has a touch of turbulence,49 do not marvel: partly the wine exalts me; partly that love which ever dwells within my heart of hearts now pricks me forward to use great boldness of speech50 against his base antagonist. Why, yes indeed, it seems to me that he who fixes his mind on outward beauty is like a man who has taken a farm on a short lease. He shows no anxiety to improve its value; his sole object being to take off it the largest crops he can himself. But he whose heart is set on loyal friendship resembles rather a man who has a farmstead of his own. At any rate, he scours the wide world to find what may enhance the value of his soul's delight.51
Καὶ μὴν καὶ τῶν παιδικῶν ὃς μὲν ἂν εἰδῇ ὅτι ὁ τοῦ εἴδους ἐπαρκῶν ἄρξει τοῦ ἐραστοῦ, εἰκὸς αὐτὸν τἆλλα ῥᾳδιουργεῖν· ὃς δ᾿ ἂν γιγνώσκῃ ὅτι ἂν μὴ καλὸς κἀγαθὸς ᾖ, οὐ καθέξει τὴν φιλίαν, τοῦτον προσήκει μᾶλλον ἀρετῆς ἐπιμελεῖσθαι. Μέγιστον δ᾿ ἀγαθὸν τῷ ὀρεγομένῳ ἐκ παιδικῶν φίλον ἀγαθὸν ποιήσασθαι ὅτι ἀνάγκη καὶ αὐτὸν ἀσκεῖν ἀρετήν. Οὐ γὰρ οἷόν τε πονηρὰ αὐτὸν ποιοῦντα ἀγαθὸν τὸν συνόντα ἀποδεῖξαι, οὐδέ γε ἀναισχυντίαν καὶ ἀκρασίαν παρεχόμενον ἐγκρατῆ καὶ αἰδούμενον τὸν ἐρώμενον ποιῆσαι. Again, let us consider the effect upon the object of attachment. Let him but know his beauty is a bond sufficient to enthrall his lover,52 and what wonder if he be careless of all else and play the wanton. Let him discover, on the contrary, that if he would retain his dear affection he must himself be truly good and beautiful, and it is only natural he should become more studious of virtue. But the greatest blessing which descends on one beset with eager longing to convert the idol of his soul into a good man and true friend is this: necessity is laid upon himself to practise virtue; since how can he hope to make his comrade good, if he himself works wickedness? Is it conceivable that the example he himself presents of what is shameless and incontinent,53 will serve to make the beloved one temperate and modest?
᾿Επιθυμῶ δέ σοι, ἔφη, ὦ Καλλία, καὶ μυθολογῆσαι ὡς οὐ μόνον ἄνθρωποι ἀλλὰ καὶ θεοὶ καὶ ἥρωες τὴν τῆς ψυχῆς φιλίαν περὶ πλείονος ἢ τὴν τοῦ σώματος χρῆσιν ποιοῦνται. Ζεύς τε γὰρ ὅσων μὲν θνητῶν οὐσῶν μορφῆς ?nbsp;ράσθη, συγγενόμενος εἴα αὐτὰς θνητὰς εἶναι· ὅσων δὲ ψυχαῖς ἀγαθαῖς ἀγασθείη, ἀθανάτους τούτους ἐποίει· ὧν ῾Ηρακλῆς μὲν καὶ Διόσκουροί εἰσι, λέγονται δὲ καὶ ἄλλοι· καὶ ἐγὼ δέ φημι καὶ Γανυμήδην οὐ σώματος ἀλλὰ ψυχῆς ἕνεκα ὑπὸ Διὸς εἰς ῎Ολυμπον ἀνενεχθῆναι. Μαρτυρεῖ δὲ καὶ τοὔνομα αὐτοῦ· ἔστι μὲν γὰρ δήπου καὶ ῾Ομήρῳ "γάνυται δέ τ᾿ ἀκούων." Τοῦτο δὲ φράζει ὅτι ἥδεται δέ τ᾿ ἀκούων. I have a longing, Callias, by mythic argument54 to show you that not men only, but gods and heroes, set greater store by friendship of the soul than bodily enjoyment. Thus those fair women55 whom Zeus, enamoured of their outward beauty, wedded, he permitted mortal to remain; but those heroes whose souls he held in admiration, these he raised to immortality. Of whom are Heracles and the Dioscuri, and there are others also named.56 As I maintain, it was not for his body's sake, but for his soul's, that Ganymede57 was translated to Olympus, as the story goes, by Zeus. And to this his very name bears witness, for is it not written in Homer?

And he gladdens ({ganutai}) to hear his voice.58

This the poet says, meaning "he is pleased to listen to his words." (Zeune).

῎Εστι δὲ καὶ ἄλλοθί που "πυκινὰ φρεσὶ μήδεα εἰδώς." Τοῦτο δ᾿ αὖ λέγει σοφὰ φρεσὶ βουλεύματα εἰδώς. ᾿Εξ οὖν συναμφοτέρων τούτων οὐχ ἡδυσώματος ὀνομασθεὶς ὁ Γανυμήδης ἀλλ᾿ ἡδυγνώμων ἐν θεοῖς τετίμηται. And again, in another passage he says:

Knowing deep devices ({medea}) in his mind,59

which is as much as to say, "knowing wise counsels in his mind." Ganymede, therefore, bears a name compounded of the two words, "joy" and "counsel," and is honoured among the gods, not as one "whose body," but "whose mind" "gives pleasure."

᾿Αλλὰ μήν, ὦ Νικήρατε, καὶ ᾿Αχιλλεὺς ῾Ομήρῳ πεποίηται οὐχ ὡς παιδικοῖς ?nbsp;ατρόκλῳ ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἑταίρῳ ἀποθανόντι ἐκπρεπέστατα τιμωρῆσαι. Καὶ ᾿Ορέστης δὲ καὶ ?nbsp;υλάδης καὶ Θησεὺς καὶ ?nbsp;ειρίθους καὶ ἄλλοι δὲ πολλοὶ τῶν ἡμιθέων οἱ ἄριστοι ὑμνοῦνται οὐ διὰ τὸ συγκαθεύδειν ἀλλὰ διὰ τὸ ἄγασθαι ἀλλήλους τὰ μέγιστα καὶ κάλλιστα κοινῇ διαπεπρᾶχθαι. Furthermore (I appeal to you, Niceratus),60 Homer makes Achilles avenge Patroclus in that brilliant fashion, not as his favourite, but as his comrade.61 Yes, and Orestes and Pylades,62 Theseus and Peirithous,63 with many another noble pair of demigods, are celebrated as having wrought in common great and noble deeds, not because they lay inarmed, but because of the admiration they felt for one another.
Τί δέ, τὰ νῦν καλὰ ἔργα οὐ πάντ᾿ ἂν εὕροι τις ἕνεκα ἐπαίνου ὑπὸ τῶν καὶ πονεῖν καὶ κινδυνεύειν ἐθελόντων πραττόμενα μᾶλλον ἢ ὑπὸ τῶν ἐθιζομένων ἡδονὴν ἀντ᾿ εὐκλείας αἱρεῖσθαι; Καίτοι ?nbsp;αυσανίας γε ὁ ᾿Αγάθωνος τοῦ ποιητοῦ ἐραστὴς ἀπολογούμενος ὑπὲρ τῶν ἀκρασίᾳ ἐγκαλινδουμένων εἴρηκεν ὡς καὶ στράτευμα ἀλκιμώτατον ἂν γένοιτο ἐκ παιδικῶν τε καὶ ἐραστῶν. Τούτους γὰρ ἂν ἔφη οἴεσθαι μάλιστα αἰδεῖσθαι ἀλλήλους ἀπολείπειν, θαυμαστὰ λέγων, εἴ γε οἱ ψόγου τε ἀφροντιστεῖν καὶ ἀναισχυντεῖν πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἐθιζόμενοι, οὗτοι μάλιστα αἰσχυνοῦνται αἰσχρόν τι ποιεῖν. Καὶ μαρτύρια δὲ ἐπήγετο ὡς ταῦτα ἐγνωκότες εἶεν καὶ Θηβαῖοι καὶ ᾿Ηλεῖοι· συγκαθεύδοντας γοῦν αὐτοῖς ὅμως παρατάττεσθαι ἔφη τὰ παιδικὰ εἰς τὸν ἀγῶνα, οὐδὲν τοῦτο σημεῖον λέγων ὅμοιον. ᾿Εκείνοις μὲν γὰρ ταῦτα νόμιμα, ἡμῖν δ᾿ ἐπονείδιστα. Δοκοῦσι δ᾿ ἔμοιγε οἱ μὲν παραταττόμενοι ἀπιστοῦσιν ἐοικέναι μὴ χωρὶς γενόμενοι οἱ ἐρώμενοι οὐκ ἀποτελῶσι τὰ τῶν ἀγαθῶν ἀνδρῶν ἔργα. Λακεδαιμόνιοι δὲ οἱ νομίζοντες, ἐὰν καὶ ὀρεχθῇ τις σώματος, μηδενὸς ἂν ἔτι καλοῦ κἀγαθοῦ τοῦτον τυχεῖν, οὕτω τελέως τοὺς ἐρωμένους ἀγαθοὺς ἀπεργάζονται ὡς καὶ μετὰ ξένων κἂν μὴ ἐν τῇ αὐτῇ [πόλει] ταχθῶσι τῷ ἐραστῇ, ὁμοίως αἰδοῦνται τοὺς παρόντας ἀπολείπειν. Θεὰν γὰρ οὐ τὴν ᾿Αναίδειαν ἀλλὰ τὴν Αἰδῶ νομίζουσι. Nay, take the fair deeds of to-day: and you shall find them wrought rather for the sake of praise by volunteers in toil and peril, than by men accustomed to choose pleasure in place of honour. And yet Pausanias,64 the lover of the poet Agathon,65 making a defence in behalf66 of some who wallow in incontinence, has stated that an army composed of lovers and beloved would be invincible.67 These, in his opinion, would, from awe of one another, have the greatest horror of destruction. A truly marvellous argument, if he means that men accustomed to turn deaf ears to censure and to behave to one another shamelessly, are more likely to feel ashamed of doing a shameful deed. He adduced as evidence the fact that the Thebans and the Eleians68 recognise the very principle, and added: Though they sleep inarmed, they do not scruple to range the lover side by side with the beloved one in the field of battle. An instance which I take to be no instance, or at any rate one-sided,69 seeing that what they look upon as lawful with us is scandalous.70 Indeed, it strikes me that this vaunted battle-order would seem to argue some mistrust on their part who adopt it--a suspicion that their bosom friends, once separated from them, may forget to behave as brave men should. But the men of Lacedaemon, holding that "if a man but lay his hand upon the body and for lustful purpose, he shall thereby forfeit claim to what is beautiful and noble"--do, in the spirit of their creed, contrive to mould and fashion their "beloved ones" to such height of virtue,71 that should these find themselves drawn up with foreigners, albeit no longer side by side with their own lovers,72 conscience will make desertion of their present friends impossible. Self-respect constrains them: since the goddess whom the men of Lacedaemon worship is not "Shamelessness," but "Reverence."73
Δοκοῦμεν δ᾿ ἄν μοι πάντες ὁμόλογοι γενέσθαι περὶ ὧν λέγω, εἰ ὧδε ἐπισκοποῖμεν, τῷ ποτέρως παιδὶ φιληθέντι μᾶλλον ἄν τις πιστεύσειεν ἢ χρήματα ἢ τέκνα ἢ χάριτας παρακατατίθεσθαι. ᾿Εγὼ μὲν γὰρ οἶμαι καὶ αὐτὸν τὸν τῷ εἴδει τοῦ ἐρωμένου χρώμενον μᾶλλον ἂν ταῦτα πάντα τῷ τὴν ψυχὴν ἐρασμίῳ πιστεῦσαι. I fancy we should all agree with one another on the point in question, if we thus approached it. Ask yourself to which type of the two must he74 accord, to whom you would entrust a sum of money, make him the guardian of your children, look to find in him a safe and sure depositary of any favour?75 For my part, I am certain that the very lover addicted to external beauty would himself far sooner have his precious things entrusted to the keeping of one who has the inward beauty of the soul.76
Σοί γε μήν, ὦ Καλλία, δοκεῖ μοι ἄξιον εἶναι καὶ θεοῖς χάριν εἰδέναι ὅτι σοι Αὐτολύκου ἔρωτα ἐνέβαλον. ὡς μὲν γὰρ φιλότιμός ἐστιν εὔδηλον, ὃς τοῦ κηρυχθῆναι ἕνεκα νικῶν παγκράτιον πολλοὺς μὲν πόνους, πολλὰ δ᾿ ἄλγη ἀνέχεται. Ah, yes! and you, my friend (he turned to Callias), you have good reason to be thankful to the gods who of their grace inspired you with love for your Autolycus. Covetous of honour,77 beyond all controversy, must he be, who could endure so many toils and pains to hear his name proclaimed78 victor in the "pankration."
Εἰ δὲ οἴοιτο μὴ μόνον ἑαυτὸν καὶ τὸν πατέρα κοσμήσειν, ἀλλ᾿ ἱκανὸς γενήσεσθαι δι᾿ ἀνδραγαθίαν καὶ φίλους εὖ ποιεῖν καὶ τὴν πατρίδα αὔξειν τροπαῖα τῶν πολεμίων ἱστάμενος, καὶ διὰ ταῦτα περίβλεπτός τε καὶ ὀνομαστὸς ἔσεσθαι καὶ ἐν ῞Ελλησι καὶ ἐν βαρβάροις, πῶς οὐκ οἴει αὐτόν, ὅντιν᾿ ἡγοῖτο εἰς ταῦτα συνεργὸν εἶναι κράτιστον, τοῦτον ταῖς μεγίσταις ἂν τιμαῖς περιέπειν; But what if the thought arose within him:79 his it is not merely to add lustre to himself and to his father, but that he has ability, through help of manly virtue, to benefit his friends and to exalt his fatherland, by trophies which he will set up against our enemies in war,80 whereby he will himself become the admired of all observers, nay, a name to be remembered among Hellenes and barbarians.81 Would he not in that case, think you, make much of82 one whom he regarded as his bravest fellow-worker, laying at his feet the greatest honours?
Εἰ οὖν βούλει τούτῳ ἀρέσκειν, σκεπτέον μέν σοι ποῖα ἐπιστάμενος Θεμιστοκλῆς ἱκανὸς ἐγένετο τὴν ῾Ελλάδα ἐλευθεροῦν, σκεπτέον δὲ ποῖά ποτε εἰδὼς ?nbsp;ερικλῆς κράτιστος ἐδόκει τῇ πατρίδι σύμβουλος εἶναι, ἀθρητέον δὲ καὶ πῶς ποτε Σόλων φιλοσοφήσας νόμους κρατίστους τῇ πόλει κατέθηκεν, ἐρευνητέον δὲ καὶ ποῖα Λακεδαιμόνιοι ἀσκοῦντες κράτιστοι δοκοῦσιν ἡγεμόνες εἶναι· προξενεῖς δὲ καὶ κατάγονται ἀεὶ παρὰ σοὶ οἱ κράτιστοι αὐτῶν. If, then, you wish to be well-pleasing in his eyes, you had best inquire by what knowledge Themistocles83 was able to set Hellas free. You should ask yourself, what keen wit belonged to Pericles83 that he was held to be the best adviser of his fatherland. You should scan84 the field of history to learn by what sage wisdom Solon85 established for our city her consummate laws. I would have you find the clue to that peculiar training by which the men of Lacedaemon have come to be regarded as the best of leaders.86 Is it not at your house that their noblest citizens are lodged as representatives of a foreign state?87
ὡς μὲν οὖν σοι ἡ πόλις ταχὺ ἂν ἐπιτρέψειεν αὑτήν, εἰ βούλει, εὖ ἴσθι. Τὰ μέγιστα γάρ σοι ὑπάρχει· εὐπατρίδης εἶ, ἱερεὺς θεῶν τῶν ἀπ᾿ ᾿Ερεχθέως, οἳ καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν βάρβαρον σὺν ᾿Ιάκχῳ ἐστράτευσαν, καὶ νῦν ἐν τῇ ἑορτῇ ἱεροπρεπέστατος δοκεῖς εἶναι τῶν μένων, καὶ σῶμα ἀξιοπρεπέστατον μὲν ἰδεῖν τῆς πόλεως ἔχεις, ἱκανὸν δὲ μόχθους ὑποφέρειν. Be sure that our state of Athens would speedily entrust herself to your direction were you willing.88 Everything is in your favour. You are of noble family, "eupatrid" by descent, a priest of the divinities,89 and of Erechtheus' famous line,90 which with Iacchus marched to encounter the barbarian.91 And still, at the sacred festival to-day, it is agreed that no one among your ancestors has ever been more fitted to discharge the priestly office than yourself; yours a person the goodliest to behold in all our city, and a frame adapted to undergo great toils.
Εἰ δ᾿ ὑμῖν δοκῶ σπουδαιολογῆσαι μᾶλλον ἢ παρὰ πότον πρέπει, μηδὲ τοῦτο θαυμάζετε. ᾿Αγαθῶν γὰρ φύσει καὶ τῆς ἀρετῆς φιλοτίμως ἐφιεμένων ἀεί ποτε τῇ πόλει συνεραστὴς ὢν διατελῶ. Οἱ μὲν δὴ ἄλλοι περὶ τῶν ῥηθέντων διελέγοντο, ὁ δ᾿ Αὐτόλυκος κατεθεᾶτο τὸν Καλλίαν. Καὶ ὁ Καλλίας δὲ παρορῶν εἰς ἐκεῖνον εἶπεν· But if I seem to any of you to indulge a vein more serious than befits the wine-cup, marvel not. It has long been my wont to share our city's passion for noble-natured souls, alert and emulous in pursuit of virtue.

He ended, and, while the others continued to discuss the theme of his discourse, Autolycus sat regarding Callias. That other, glancing the while at the beloved one, turned to Socrates.

Οὐκοῦν σύ με, ὦ Σώκρατες, μαστροπεύσεις πρὸς τὴν πόλιν, ὅπως πράττω τὰ πολιτικὰ καὶ ἀεὶ ἀρεστὸς ὦ αὐτῇ; Call. Then, Socrates, be pleased, as go-between,92 to introduce me to the state, that I may employ myself in state affairs and never lapse from her good graces.93
Ναὶ μὰ Δί᾿, ἔφη, ἂν ὁρῶσί γέ σε μὴ τῷ δοκεῖν ἀλλὰ τῷ ὄντι ἀρετῆς ἐπιμελούμενον. ἡ μὲν γὰρ ψευδὴς δόξα ταχὺ ἐλέγχεται ὑπὸ τῆς πείρας· ἡ δ᾿ ἀληθὴς ἀνδραγαθία, ἂν μὴ θεὸς βλάπτῃ, ἀεὶ ἐν ταῖς πράξεσι λαμπροτέραν τὴν εὔκλειαν συμπαρέχεται. Never fear (he answered), if only people see your loyalty to virtue is genuine,94 not of mere repute. A false renown indeed is quickly seen for what it is worth, being tested; but true courage95 (save only what some god hinder) perpetually amidst the storm and stress of circumstance96 pours forth a brighter glory.
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[1] {sunekroteito}, "on the composition of his piece." Al. "amidst a round of plaudits."

[2] "Struck the keynote of a novel theme." Cf. Plat. "Symp." 177 E.

[3] Cf. Shelley, "Hymn to Intellectual Beauty":

The awful shadow of some unseen Power Floats, though unseen, among us. . . .

[4] Reading with L. D. after Blomfield (Aesch. "Ag." p. 304), {idrumenou}, or if as vulg. {isoumenou}, transl. "but in soul is fashioned like to mortal man."

[5] "Eros."

[6] Or, "who are each and all of us members of his band." For {thiasotai} cf. Aristot. "Eth. N." viii. 9. 5; Aristoph. "Frogs," 327.

[7] Cf. Plat. "Symp." 177 D: "No one will vote against you, Erysimachus, said Socrates; on the only subject [{ta erotika}] of which I profess to have any knowledge, I certainly cannot refuse to speak, nor, I presume, Agathon and Pasuanias; and there can be no doubt of Arisophanes, who is the constant servant of Dionysus and Aphrodite; nor will any one disagree of those I see around me" (Jowett).

[8] Or, "has had many a passionate admirer, and been enamoured of more than one true love himself." See Plat. "Charm.," ad in.

[9] For Love and Love-for-Love, {eros} and {anteros}, see Plat. "Phaedr." 255 D. Cf. Aristot. "Eth. N." ix. 1.

[10] Lit. "which of us but knows his soul is melting away with passion." Cf. Theocr. xiv. 26.

[11] Lit. "beautiful and gentle manhood."

[12] Lit. "how serious are his brows."

[13] The phrases somehow remind one of Sappho's famous ode:

But there we must stop. Hermogenes is a sort of Sir Percivale,

"such a courtesy spake thro' the limbs and in the voice."

[14] Al. "like a true coquet." Cf. Plat. "Phaedr." 228 C.

[15] See "Mem." III. xi. 14.

[16] Or, "tear and scratch me."

[17] Lit. "many a foreign visitor likewise."

[18] See the Attic type of character, as drawn by Pericles, Thuc. ii. 40.

[19] For Aphrodite Ourania and Pandemos see Plat. "Symp." 180.

[20] Lit. "that is believed to be the same." See Cic. "De N. D." iii.

16. Cf. Aesch. "Prom." 210 (of Themis and Gaia), {pollon onomaton morphe mia}.

[21] e.g. to Aphrodite Pandemos a white goat, {mekas leuke}, but to Aphrodite Ourania a heifer, and {thusiai nephaliai}, offerings without wine, i.e. of water, milk, and honey. Schol. to Soph. "Oed. Col." 100; Lucian, lxvii. "Dial. Mer." 7. 1.

[22] Lit. "by Eros."

[23] Cf. Plat. "Prot." 318 A; Aristoph. "Thesmoph." 21, "learned conversazioni."

[24] Lit. "teaching him what sort of man he ought to be." This, as we know, is the very heart and essence of the Socratic (= {XS}) method. See "Mem." I. ii. 3.

[25] Lit. "That without love no intercourse is worth regarding, we all know."

[26] N.B.--{agamenon, epithumounton, sterxosi}. Here, as often, the author seems to have studied the {orthoepeia} of Prodicus. See "Mem." II. i. 24.

[27] i.e. "body and character."

[28] Cf. "Mem." III. xi. 13.

[29] Lit. "is more insatiate." Cf. Charles Wesley's hymn:

[30] Lit. "is she, the soul, more separate from Aphrodite."

[31] Or, "stamped with the image of Aphrodite." Zeune cf. Lucr. i. 24, addressing Venus, "te sociam studeo scribendis versibus esse," "I would have thee for a helpmate in writing the verses . . ."; and below, 28, "quo magis aeternum da dictis, diva, leporem," "Wherefore all the more, O lady, lend my lays an ever-living charm" (H. A. J. Munro).

[32] Cf. Plat. "Phaedr." 252 E.

[33] The epithet {philophron} occurs "Mem." III. i. 6, of a general; ib. III. v. 3 (according to the vulg. reading), of the Athenians.

[34] Or, "the boy whom he cherishes."

[35] Or, "perfection."

[36] Lit. "the boy."

[37] Reading {en para ti poiese}. Al. "come what come may," lit. "no alteration"; or if reading {parebese} transl. "although his May of youth should pass, and sickness should mar his features, the tie of friendship will not be weakened."

[38] For beauty of style (in the original) Zeune cf. "Mem." II. vi. 28 foll.; III. xi. 10.

[39] "Albeit absent from one another in the body, they are more present in the soul." Cf. Virg. "Aen." iv. 83, "illum absens absentem auditque videtque."

[40] Or, "bear the stamp of Aphrodite."

[41] Or, "is wholly taken up with." Cf. Plat. "Laws," 831 C.

[42] Cf. "Hiero," iii. 3; "Cyrop." III. i. 39.

[43] Lit. "by Aphrodite." Cf. Plat. "Phaedr." 240, "But the lover . . . when he is drunk" (Jowett); "Symp." 214 C.

[44] Zeune cf. Ael. "V. H." viii. 9, re Archelaus king of Macedon, concerning whom Aristotle, "Pol." v. 10. 1311 B: "Many conspiracies have originated in shameful attempts made by sovereigns on the persons of their subjects. Such was the attack of Crataeus upon Archelaus," etc. (Jowett).

[45] Phoenix addresses Achilles, "Il." ix. 443: {muthon te reter' emenai, prektera te ergon} Therefore sent he (Peleus) me to thee to teach thee all things, To be both a speaker of words and a doer of deeds (W. Leaf).

[46] See "Il." xi. 831; "Hunting," ch. i., as to Cheiron and his scholars, the last of whom is Achilles.

[47] {an periepoito}. "He will be scurvily treated." Cf. "Hell." III. i. 19.

[48] Cf. "Mem." I. ii. 29.

[49] Or, "wantonness"; and for the apology see Plat. "Phaedr." 238: "I appear to be in a divine fury, for already I am getting into dithyrambics" (Jowett).

[50] Lit. "to speak openly against that other sort of love which is its rival."

[51] Cf. Michelet, I think, as to the French peasant-farmer regarding his property as "sa femme."

[52] Or, "that by largess of beauty he can enthrall his lover."

[53] See Plat. "Symp." 182 A, 192 A.

[54] Or, "I have a desire to romance a little," "for your benefit to explain by legendary lore." Cf. Isocr. 120 C; Plat. "Rep." 392 B.

[55] e.g. Leda, Danae, Europa, Alcmena, Electra, Latona, Laodamia

[56] See "Hunting," i.; "Hell." VI. iii. 6.

[57] See Plat. "Phaedr." 255 C; Cic. "Tusc." i. 26, "nec Homerum audio . . . divina mallem ad nos," a protest against anthropomorphism in religion.

[58] Not in "our" version of Homer, but cf. "Il." xx. 405, {ganutai de te tois 'Enosikhthon}; "Il." xiii. 493, {ganutai d' ara te phrena poimen}.

[59] Partly "Il." xxiv. 674, {pukina phresi mede' ekhontes}; and "Il." xxiv. 424, {phila phresi medea eidos}. Cf. "Od." vi. 192; xviii. 67, 87; xxii. 476.

[60] As an authority on Homer.

[61] Cf. Plat. "Symp." 179 E: "The notion that Patroclus was the beloved one is a foolish error into which Aeschylus has fallen," etc. (in his "Myrmidons"). See J. A. Symonds, "The Greek Poets," 2nd series, "Achilles," p. 66 foll.

[62] Concerning whom Ovid ("Pont." iii. 2. 70) says, "nomina fama tenet."

[63] See Plut. "Thes." 30 foll. (Clough, i. p. 30 foll.); cf. Lucian, xli. "Toxaris," 10.

[64] See Cobet, "Pros. Xen." p. 15; Plat. "Protag." 315 D; Ael. "V. H." ii. 21.

[65] Ib.; Aristot. "Poet." ix.

[66] Or, "in his 'Apology' for."

[67] Plat. "Symp." 179 E, puts the sentiment into the mouth of Phaedrus: "And if there were only some way of contriving that a state or an army should be made up of lovers and their loves, they would be the very best governors of their own city, abstaining from all dishonour, and emulating one another in honour; and when fighting at one another's side, although not a mere handful, they would overcome the world. For what lover would not choose rather to be seen by all mankind than by his beloved, either when abandoning his post or throwing away his arms? He would be ready to die a thousand deaths rather than endure this. Or would desert his beloved or fail him in the hour of danger? The veriest coward would become an inspired hero, equal to the bravest, at such a time; Love would inspire him. That courage which, as Homer says, the god breathes into the soul of heroes, Love of his own nature infuses into the lover" (Jowett). Cf. "Hunting," xii. 20; "Anab." VII. iv. 7; "Cyrop." VII. i. 30.

[68] Sc. in their institutions. Cf. Plat. "Symp." 182, "in Elis and Boeotia"; "Pol. Lac." ii. 13; Ael. "V. H." iii. 12, xiii. 5; Athen. xiii. 2. For the Theban Sacred Band see Plut. "Pelop." 18, 19 (Clough, ii. 218).

[69] Or, "not in pari materia, so to speak."

[70] Is not Xenophon imputing himself to Socrates? Henkel cf. Plat. "Crito," 52 E. See Newman, op. cit. i. 396.

[71] Or, "shape to so fine a manhood that . . ."

[72] Reading {en te aute taxei}. Al. {. . . polei}, transl. "nor indeed in the same city." Cf. "Hell." V. iv. 33, re death of Cleonymus at Leuctra.

[73] Lit. "Aidos not Anaideia." See Paus. "Lac." xx. 10; "Attica," xvii. 1; Cic. "de Leg." ii. 11, a reference which I owe to M. Eugene Talbot, "Xen." i. 236.

[74] He (the master-mistress of my passion).

[75] {kharitas} = "kindly offices," beneficia. Cf. "Ages." iv. 4; "Mem." IV. iv. 17. Al. = delicias, "to deposit some darling object."

[76] Or, "some one truly lovable in soul and heart."

[77] See "Mem." II. iii. 16; "Isocr." 189 C, {ph. kai megalopsukhoi}.

[78] i.e. "by the public herald."

[79] Cf. Theogn. 947:

[80] Who in 421 B.C. were of course the Lacedaemonians and the allies. Autolycus was killed eventually by the Thirty to please the Lacedaemonian harmost. See Plut. "Lysand." 15 (Clough, iii. 120); Paus. i. 18. 3; ix. 32. 8. Cf. "Hell." II. iii. 14.

[81] Cf. "Anab." IV. i. 20; "Mem." III. vi. 2.

[82] {periepein}. Cf. "Cyrop." IV. iv. 12; "Mem." II. ix. 5.

[83] See "Mem." II. vi. 13; III. vi. 2; IV. ii. 2.

[84] For the diction, {skepteon, skepteon, aphreteon, ereuneteon, epistamenos, eidos, philosopheras}, Xenophon's rhetorical style imitates the {orthoepeia} of Prodicus.

[85] See "Econ." xiv. 4.

[86] Or, "won for themselves at all hands the reputation of noblest generalship." Cf. "Ages." i. 3; "Pol. Lac." xiv. 3.

[87] Reading as vulg. {proxenoi d' ei . . .} or if with Schenkl, {proxenos d' ei . . .} transl. "You are their consul-general; at your house their noblest citizens are lodged from time to time." As to the office, cf. Dem. 475. 10; 1237. 17; Thuc. ii. 29; Boeckh, "P. E. A." 50. Callias appears as the Lac. {proxenos} ("Hell." V. iv. 22) 378 B.C., and at Sparta, 371 B.C., as the peace commissioner ("Hell." VI. iii. 3).

[88] Cf. "Mem." III. vii.

[89] i.e. Demeter and Core. Callias (see "Hell." VI. l.c.) was dadouchos (or torch-holder) in the mysteries.

[90] Or, "whose rites date back to Erechtheus." Cf. Plat. "Theag." 122.

[91] At Salamis. The tale is told by Herod. viii. 65, and Plut. "Themist." 15; cf. Polyaen. "Strat." iii. 11. 2. Just as Themistocles had won the battle of Salamis by help of Iacchus on the 16th Boedromion, the first day of the mysteries, so Chabrias won the sea-fight of Naxos by help of the day itself, {to 'Alade mustai}, 376 B.C.

[92] Lit. "as pander."

[93] So Critobulus in the conversation so often referred to. "Mem." II. vi.

[94] See "Mem." I. vii. 1, passim; II. vi. 39; "Econ." x. 9.

[95] Cf. Thuc. ii. 42, {andragathia}, "true courage in the public service covers a multitude of private shortcomings."

[96] {en tais praxesi}. Cf. Plat. "Phaedr." 271 D, "in actual life."


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