*By Antonis T. Vasilakis

    During the Minoan years in Crete, almost every city and every palace had its own cavern of worship, high atop some near mountain, which was found at a distance of maximum one hour. If some cavern of worship was significant and used for the needs people of more than one city, then the structure of these cities was adjusted according to the position of the worship cavern. Usually the cities were situated eastern of the sacred cavern, while the inner sanctum of the temples found in the city was orientated towards the sacred cavern at the west and the temple entrance was often from the east. In these caverns, which of course were not always natural ones, the ceremonies were performed by persons with exceptional encyclopaedic education derived from scriptures, unique at their kind, because they were describing almost everything existing or happening during this or previous eras of many centuries. Everything they knew was owed to their Cretan sea domination by that time, throughout the nowadays known world, and to the participation of mercenary Cretan warriors in all the armies of the era.

    The knowledge they possessed became from early an object of trade, because of their unique importance and were supplied to the great, pythian, minoan era oracles, especially after those that have flourished in the name of the JUDGE MINOS, as a divinity. 

    Later on again, this means of spreading knowledge is continued and promoted by the orphics having as a Crete, and especially Phaistos, as the basis and is expanded worldwide.



Right Photograph:

     This was easy, because ever since many centuries ago many nations were speaking the Cretan language (Hellenic) and were writing in Linear A', with minimal alterations, depending on the intellectual education of each nation. Most of them were under the influence of Cretan settlers, who with the passing of the millennia had created their own civilizations not any more dependant on the metropolis.

    The Minoan civilization of that era is far from the Mycenaean and every other civilization to the extent that the technology of a bicycle is exceeded by the technology spaceships or the technology of nuclear weapons from the unknown to the western world Tesla superweapon technology.

    If we could view a Cretan palace of approximately 1500 B.C. with almost all its decorations, it would cause us surprise, if not astonishment, HOOD claims. (Here HOOD, a worthy excavationist, perhaps the only English that passed from the island at the last millennium with clearly scientific and not trading interests as other descendants of Elgin and Evans, refers according to the until now predominant view of events chronology, which does not anymore correspond to the reality about 'prehistoric' occurrences). At the Ugarit poems , the god of handicraft has his throne in Kaphtor(=Crete), Sinclair Hood notes.

    Here -says Nikos Kazantzakis at his Reference to Graeco - the soul of Greece performed its fatal mission: it brought the god at the human climax. The enormous, static Egyptian or assyrian statues became here, in Crete, small and charming. The body moved, the mouth smiled, the face and height of the god took the face and height of the human.

    We will now cope with the previous mentioned more analytically. Inevitably, we shall begin from Minos, the omnipotent dominator and Sea Ruler. We cannot refrain from calling him omnipotent, him who conquered and civilized the entire planet Earth, leaving at each of his missions people that created colonies..from Japan to the American continent, as it is seen from the living and soulless relics. People that still maintain customs and traditions from Crete, with their dialect as well coming from the mixture of language spoken per location with the Minoan one (Hellenic Cretan dialect), (when we are referring to Minos we do not mean a specific person, but a title of a king-priest. Even though the indications lead to the conclusion that the most famous of all, who offered prestige to this title, according to the writings of the Papyrus-Larus-Britannica encyclopaedia, was Minos B'). During the last two decades many foreign historians and researches clearly found Greek words at the languages of Inca, Aztecs in the Southern and Central American, as well as the Pacific Ocean, Indonesia, New Guinea, Polynesia, Melanesia and Australia. Moreover from India and China to Japan not only greek words do exist, but also very ancient Greek naming of locations such as in Chine, whose southern region is called Yunan = Ionia etc.

    Furthermore even to the most, if not all, languages of the African continent they discover clearly Hellenic words equally ancient and modern. The resemblance between words of the Hawaii language and corresponding ones from ancient Greek is remarkable. In the Hawaii language aeto means aetos = eagle, nou-nou = nous(thought), manao = matheno (ancient Greek: manthano = learn), mele = song (ancient Greek.: melos ), laoui = laos(people), iki = arrive (ancient Greek.: ikano ), noko = live, inhabit (ancient Greek.: naeo ). At the Canarian islands, there are the words alio  for Helios=Sun and sel for Selene=Moon. The Aztecs use the word Teo in their compound words for God (ancient Greek.: melos) which is met in many locations. The most curious coincidence is at the word teokali that means the house of God and is very similar to the ancient Greek Theou kalias which means the altar of God. Pecular also is the Mayan phrase Konex Omon Panex, that sounds the same way with the phrase Konx Om Panx, spoken by the ancient Greeks during the Eleusian Rites whose ceremonial details come from Crete. The same greek phrase is also used by the Brahmans in their religious ceremonies, under the form Kansa Om Pansa. (We have coped with the translation of  Konx Om Panx and its etymological analysis at an article about the Minoan Worshipper in PATRIDA newspaper, Heraklion of Crete.

    The Mayan scripture is literally the ancient Cretan scripture, Linear A, that arrived there from this Greek island. The presence of Hellenism is visible in Maya. The art of painting, sculpture, textiles process, all of them Hellenic and in specific Minoan and Mycenaean. The temples with the monolithic pillars, weighting 25 tones, were not build of course in the jungle by inhabitant farmers, because they demanded architects, geometrical knowledge and definitely high technology. They moreover constructed observatories and stadiums alike the Greek ones. The Greek Minoans governed Maya and the Spanish conquistadors narrated that the grand imperial family of Peru, which possessed all the high rankings, spoke a special language, incomprehensible to the public and to the translators. Was this language ancient Cretan, that is ancient Greek?. We know from our articles in  PATRIDA at the issues of  4 and 5/2/97, in the January 1997 issue of DAVLOS magazine, and the January-March 1998 issue of the magazine ARCHAEOLOGY AND ARTS (article about the ornamental pin of the Cretan Agios Nicolaos Museum), that Greek is not only the language of Linear B, but of Linear A also, even more is the language of phonetic values at the Cretan 'hieroglyphs' which were used by the priests until the first millennium B.C.

    Let us note that from all the Precolombian people only the Mayans created a scripture system and their language differs entirely from the rest ones of Central America and Mexico. We also meet many words of the ancient Greek Cretan dialect in the extremely ancient Indian one. Noteworthy is i.e. the Cretan type of the referring pronoun 'ostis', written 'otini' in the dative case, with ending found in the ancient indian, -kasmin. (enyclopaedia Papyrus-Larus-Britannica). Many words of the ancient Incas are similar to the ancient Greek since they have Minoan origin. Let it also be noted that the French researcher Pierre Honore, has discovered inscriptions with the Cretan Linear List of Syllables at the shores of Amazon, pictures of which have been also been published by researcher Mertz. A jar of Crete origin, identical of which was discovered in Knossos, was found in Bimini. Cretan copper made Doubleaxes were discovered in Wisconsin and Ohaio of U.S.A. Similar objects have been found in England as well.

    The cultural invasion of the Cretans, in the various areas of the northern (especially) hemisphere, commenced before the 4th millennium B.C., creating several afterwards great civilizations like the Egyptian and the great civilizations of south America. Each of the different enormous cities built around the globe by our ancestors, the Minoans (before the existence of any form of civilization in Egypt), was a geodetic landmark of a colossal system of annotation for each geographical longitude, with the most ancient being the centre of the Omphalic Field of Knossos, the grand disaster of which took place in the second half of the 16th century B.C. Remnants of ashes from Santorini volcano were recently found in Greenland, dating back to 1623 B.C. and showing, with a deviation of approximately 20 years, the year of destruction of the Minoan civilization. The explosion of the Santorini volcano was such, that almost reached the entire planet at the verge of a catastrophe.

    In order to realise the extent of the disaster, we shall attempt a comparison of this eruption with the comparatively far smaller one of the Krakatao volcano, which is situated at Sounda pass, between Java and Sumatra, that occurred in the 26th of August 1883. The University of Athens professor, M.D. Dermitzakis, in an article of his in 'Iconographimeni Historia' by Papyrus Press, issue 318, writes: "At the 26th of August strong explosions were heard at a distance of 160kms and thick dark clouds were thrown at a height of 27kms. Across the length of Java and Sumatra shores darkness fell, since the volcanic clouds covered the sun. This darkness lasted two and half days. Cataclysmic rainfall of volcanic ashes was added to the perturbulence. At the 27th of August, Krakatao reached at its maximum explosive level. The noises of a series of explosions were heard up to Australia, at a distance of 4840 kms. At the same time, volcanic lava was ejected many kilometres high in the sky. The most thin-grained particles, with the assistance of the stratosphere winds, surrounded the earth and required almost two years in order to settle down. It was calculated that 6-8 cubic kilometres of shredded stones were ejected to the air during the paroxysms, which shaped Krakatao into a cone, with a release of energy equal to the one of the strongest hydrogen bomb. Naturally, the impact of its eruption was the creation of a tsunami, which reached the height of 38m. from top to bottom, while it stroke the Java and Sumatra shores sweeping to death 36.000 people. The tsunami strength could be estimated because it carried a large ship 2.5 kms in the inland and threw it there 10 meters above sea level. Rocks weighting 50 tones were carried even further). As it is seen in the house of the fallen rocks of Knossos, strong thrusting powers literally caused the explosion of gigantic rocks that no human force would be possible to even move, unless manipulating the nowadays mechanical means. This catastrophe comprised a more general geological phenomenon, which was also observed at Troy, in the western Asia Minor and in the central Palestine, as the excavations have also showed.

    For the same event, Nicolaos Platon, in his book ZAKROS The new Minoan palace 1974 editon, (by the Archaeological Company of Greece), writes in pages 264 and 266 and onwards, with the subtitle The parallel of Krakatao :

    Information about the destructive consequences that the great Thera eruption may have caused was compiled for the study of the Krakatao volcano explosion during the year 1883, the only analogous case for which we have precise details. The volcanic island of Krakatao was transformed into characteristic caldera through consecutive eruptions. After a 200-year period of idleness, the volcano erupted suddenly in August 1993, after a smaller prodromic eruption in May. For two days the volcano ejected magma, ash, steams and gases. Strong noises from crashing waves and fire and air vibrations escorted the eruption. The ash and gases, awfully smelling due to the brimstone included to the magma, covered to an enormous portion the neighbouring islands Java and Sumatra, while the sky there was entirely darkened for two entire months. The soil was covered by a dust layer of 0.30 m. depth. A small quantity in this layer was coming from shredded rocks of the island, whose 2/3, of an area 28 square kms, sank in the sea, collapsing inside the magma-emptied underground hall. A volcanic wave of 35 m. was created by the sinking, which literally swept the shores of the great islands Java and Sumatra, destroying 295 settlements and causing the drowning of 36000 people. The results were furthermore becoming observable at a wide area of the globe. The tsunami was sensed in every ocean, and the noises by the vibrations were estimated to have been heard through the 1/3 of the planet's total area. Damages were inflicted to households at an area of 800 square kms around Krakatao. Geostrophic winds carried the thin dust throughout the seas.

    If one were to compare these phenomena with the ones of the Thera eruption, he would be able to extract with relative safety the conclusion that the latter owed to have been of multiple intensity, certainly no less than four times. At Thera, an area of 83 square kms sank, the magma spitting cones were three and the surface-covering layer reached a depths of more than 30 m. The volcanic wave produced by a far greater water displacement was incomparatively greater and was certainly transmitted with maximum speed, since this increases in relation to the depth of the water volumes on which it moves, a depth which reaches 1500 m. between Thera and Crete. The wave height is estimated to have reached 70-100 m. and its speed exceeded 350 kms per hour, thus arriving at the shores of Crete within the first 20 minutes, which it literally swept over. Observations that took place in the neighbouring island of Thera, Anaphi, examined as possible, according to the reassurements of geologist G. Marinos, that a dust layer 5 m. thick was cast in the bottom of a valley at a height of 250 m. above the sea. Other scientists supported that this layer was placed there during another, far older eruption. The tsunami definately reached until the shores of Syria, Tynesia, the Nile Delta and Palestine, about three hours after the eruption. In Jaffan, ancient Ioppis (currently comprising a section of Tel Aviv), a dust layer was discovered 5 m. above sea surface. The massive roars were heard far beyond Scandinavia, central Africa and mid-Atlantic Ocean. Strong earthquakes must have preceded as well as followed the eruption, provoked by the dislocation of the lava crust and as a result of the terrible sinking. Generally the power of the eruption was approximated as equal to the one that hundreds of hydrogen bombs would provoke. One can therefore perceive the consequences it would have to the relatively small-distance situated Minoan centres .

    The consecutive Thera volcano eruptions have caused such a confusion to the attempts for chronological definition of the great disaster, that even today they assume it has occurred in 1450 B.C. Moreover it still has not been defined whether the destruction of Crete happened because of the direct volcanic activity or the results of the falling dust and earthquakes, that were also escorted by great fires. Since however neither human victims of the final disaster or of the previous were discovered, it seems that the people found time to escape, since they managed to hide numerous treasures under the house floors of Knossos, with the hope to seek for them in the future. The view that because in the tomb depictions of Egyptian officers under the service of King Tuthmosis III (1481-1447 B.C.) , Kefti (Cretans) have been presented carrying pottery similar to the Zakros findings, the century of the palace destruction is proven, is not valid. The reason is that we should not exclude the case that the Minoans had created a city worthy of their civilization in Middle East and had continued their exchanges with various people same as before. I have indications for this case, that such a city with a flourishing port was Haifa under the name Ako or Akho, which I believe was also the Minoan city of Knossos. Knossos was called by the name we know her today by Mycenaeans. The graveyard of this city was at Aharnes according to the etymological analysis of the word (Akh-arnes->Aharnes->Arhanes=Hades of Ako=graveyard of Ako). I read the name of the Minoan Knossos at a coin of the historic times, which carries the design of the Labyrinth, on the left it as we see it the letter A, on the right R and under the design the word KNOSION. Below the letters A and R, there are two hieroglyphs which, when read from right to left (meaning from R to A), they give us the word Ako. It appears that during historic times, a coin of the prehistoric times was copied, on which the name of the Mycenaean Knossos (preserved until today) was additionally written using the Greek alphabet. I should also add that Knossos = destroyed Ako, in the Mycenaean dialect. (Initially we have  a-ko-no-so = a-ko no-so = Ako nosos(meaning illness, disaster) = Ako destroyed)

    The Minoan era cities conveyed geodetic and astronomical interdependence with Knossos being the global point of reference along with Phaestus and Pafos of Cyprus at the 35th parallel, while the number of the rhodakes (roses) leaves and the various star names are characteristic of each geographical parallel. Thus, from the rhodakes drawing we can discern if i.e. a jar is related with Crete or Mycenae, located in the 38th parallel. The cities shape isosceles triangles with each other. The triangle Knossos-Sparta-Dodoni is isosceles, same as the triangles Olympia-Dephi-Athens, Sparta-Athens-Delos, Sparta-Dodoni-Athens, Deplhi-Argos-Athens and others. 

Photo on the right : Section of the Geodetic field with Knossos as its centre.  (from the book of Th. Manias "TA AGNOSTA MEGALOYRGIMATA TON ARHAION HELLINON")

Section of the Geodetic field with Knossos as its centre

     The orientation of the temples was performed on the basis of some focal centers (omphali) such as i.e. Delphi, Delos, Sardes, the temple of Ammon Zeus in the Siva (Siua) oasis of Egypt which Pharaoh Amasis had built in 520 B.C. in the name of sun Ammon, while there also existed an oracle which advised Alexander the Great telling him that he was the one to dominate over Egypt. The Egyptian dynasties had abolished this system, to which Pharaoh Akhenaton tried to restore unsuccessfully. Later on, Menealos, keeper of the geodetic knowledge from his ancestor Thyestis, renewed this extremely ancient system by building Canopos almost above the ruins of the predynastic capital Behntet, which geodetically harmonized with a series of omphali of the northern hemisphere.

    We admired the geodetic knowledge of the Minoans in combination with the religious conscience, while when researching we observed the following:

1) The ophalic field of Knossos which as we mentioned was a global center of geodetic refernece, is located at the weight center, meaning the intersection point of the isosceles triangle mid-verticals, whose projection has as its edges the great caverns of worship (Arkalohori-Psyhrou-Skoteinou), whose centre is situated near the Castelian plain airport, at the Heraklion of Crete, and specifically slightly northeast of Euaggelismos village.

    The geographic centers were also characterised as omphali in ancenstral times. After all, the correct naming is Omphalic pedon=pedion=field=midland according to N. Stavrakis. Spratt also places this field in the Castelian plain at the Pediada county (I do not know whether this location of Spratt is supported geographically), and places Thenes at the position of today's village Sampas of the same county, northwest of Castelion.

    The river Crateros has its source at the Castelian plain, known as Amnisos or Triton in ancient times. According to Diodoros of Sicily, in this area of the Triton sources, Athena was born by Zeus, and due to this fact was called Tritogeneia (born of / at Triton). <<They also narrate in lores Athena to have been born in Crete at the sources of Triton river, and thus named Tritogeneia. There is even up to now around these sources a holy sanctum of this Goddess, on the place where her bith they narrate in lores to have taken place>>. The word Athena itself, in the Cretan dialect Atana (Tan was the name of Zeus in Crete) explains etymologically the above. The claim by Pape that Thenes are in Kanni Castelli, and therefore the Ophalic field mentioned by Callimachus in his hymn to Zeus is at the valley between Knossos and this village, is incorrect. since it is not based on anything. When the legend of Callimachus says that the Cydonias called Omphalic the place were the navel of baby Zeus fell, implies the geodetic ompalus of the geodetic ompalic field of Knossos.

2) The point where the ancient city of Malia is situated creates an isosceles triangle with the points found in the sacred caverns of Psychros and Skoteinos, with Malia on the top. This means we have the distances: cavern Skoteinou-cavern Arkalohoriou=cavern Arkalohoriou-cavern Psyhrou, Psyhrou-Malia=Malia-Skoteinou.

3) The distance Knossos-Arkalohoriou=cavern Skoteinou-cavern Arkalohoriou.

4) Circular perimeter with the range the distance Arkalohoriou-Psyhrou, and with center Arkalohoriou passing through Skoteinou and Knossos.

    Euimeros mentions that, the farmost ancient Greek Minoan Cretes, led by Zeus, had created settlements in Arabia, Persia, Indian Ocean islands, Paghaia island, Mesopotamia, where after many years they were named Sumerians, until the Black Sea, where they appeared and settled as Halyves. Philhellenes Indians of Calcuta claim: We believe we came from Crete far before Alexander (at least some of us). Cretan seals have been discovered in our area. The Yiang port was a very ancient one and the history of the real Argonauts must be hidden there (Oikonomikos Taxydromos , 6-10-94). Should perhaps this so-called  Indoeuropean language or even some ancient mediterranean be called Graecocretominoan instead?; Archaeologist S.K.CHATTERGI in the chapter of his famous book History and civilization of the Indian people not only admits the great immigration from the Aegean islands with Crete as their center, but also insists in the origins of the indian people from the prehellenes of the Aegean. An Indian archaeologist, while seeking old buddhist temples in Pakistan (1922), discovered six sealstones, one after another, bearing a carved depiction of perfect art. Without being able to decipher them, he referred to the orientalist archaeologist SIR JOHN MARSHAL, to whom he surrendered his findings. During 1925 it became known that some relationship between these sealstones and the pictorial depictions on the Disk of Phaestus should exist. In a recent announcement made by the professor of theoretic physics of the Yokohama Unversity, Yoshiro Takano, in which he mentions the similarity of Militos to its metropolis Milato of Crete, similarity topographic, poleodomic, architectural and above all geographical, he does not leave any doubt that the settlers of Militos brought to their new country the geographical knowledge of their metropolitan files. The Minoan colonizing activity, that is already defined in the mid of the 2nd millennium B.C., was intensified after the great eruption of Thera volcano. The immigrants-colonists carried to their new homes whatever precious they could save. The celestial sphere found under the possession of Thales from Militos as well as the knowledge of this wise man, to whom the book Nautical Astrology is attributed, must have had Minoan Crete as their origin.  The Minoan geography is easily discerned in the geodetical and topographical convictions of the Minoan constructors and colonists.. The writer of the Ships Catalogue in rhapsody B of The Iliad mentions that the Minoans that escorted the Idomeneus fleet in the campaign against Troy were coming from a hundred states. It would not be a surprise if it were confirmed by the archaeological excavations that these were allocated according to the geometric triangularity which, as we mentioned, exists in the sacred caverns. The Omphalus oracle, in the Ophalic Pedon (Pedion=Field), at Castelion of Pediada, at a specific geographical longitude, so as to comprise a calculation key for the geographic distances between Northern and Southern hemisphere, is a fact that signifies the advancement the Minoans had achieved in this area. Whatismore the presence of Minoan priests (Cretans from Minoan Knossos, Orgiones) in the omphalus of the world, in Delphi, as it is mentioned at the Homeric Hymn to Apollo constitutes an additional testimony implying the relationship of these two areas in terms of sacred geography. The navigation of the Minoans in the Atlantic was definitely contacted on the basis of some earthen and astronomical coordinations. This passage from nautical astrology to the systems of geographical coordinations was complex, since those who founded the geographical longitudes and latitudes (in the ancestral geodetic form) were required to gather the experience of countless travels and the knowledge of basic sciences of their era.

It is a fact that the roots of geography and geodesy begin from the Minoan area and from whichever legacy of the ancient Cretan sailors and explorers.

Researcher of Prehistoric Scriptures
Vlychia - Knossos
Heraklion of Crete
web site :


 ===============ARTICLE BIBLIOGRAPHY===============


(63 volumes)
Epistimi kai Zoi 
(16 volumes)
Haris Patsis: Nea Elliniki (kai Pagkosmios) egkyklopaedia
Nea Domi
(1996 edition)(35 volumes)
: Hellas ( volume)


Psilakis B.: Istoria tis Kritis (4 volumes)
Detorakis Theoh.
: Istoria tis Kritis
Spanakis St.
: Istoria tis Kritis (2 volumes)
Kriti: Istoria kai Politismos
( Vicaelean Library Edition) (2 volumes)
Ekdotiki Athinon
: (16 volumes)
Hrist. Buodelmonti
: Enas gyros tis Kritis sta 1415
Rbert Pashley
John Chadwick
: Linear B and relative scriptures
: Introduction to linear B (National Bank)
Arthur Evans
: and the palace of Minos, Oxford editions (Ashmol.Museum)
Walter Burkert
: Ancient Greek Religion
Alexiou St.
.: Minoikos politismos
Paul Phor
: I Kathimerini Zoi stin Kriti tin Minoiki epohi
G. Panagiotaki
: Diketo Antro
: History of the Ancient Greek Religion
: The Mycaenean origins of the Greek Mythology
Agg. Lempesi
: Kriton Politia
History of Humanity (24 volumes)
Dikigorikos Syllogos Herakliou
: H Megali Dodekadeltos Epigrafi tis Gortynos
D. Papaditsas-E.Ladia
: Homerikoi Hymnoi
D. Papaditsas-E.Ladia
: Orphikoi Hymnoi
: Ta Orphica
: Alithini Proistoria
Aris Poulianos
: The origins of the Cretans
Papadakis N.
: Ierapetra
Efi and I. Sakellarakis
: Arhanes
Zah. Simandirakis
: Georgioupolis
Periklis Rediadis
: O Kritikos Labyrinthos kai oi sxetikoi mythoi
: The disc of Phaestus (Photo Edition 1992)
Sinclair Hood
: The art in Perhistoric Greece
Gian. Sakellarakis
: Kritomykinaika (Vicaelean edition)
: Kritikes Hypotheses (Odoiporiko 1897)
F. W. Sieber
: Travelling the Crete island in 1817
C.Rochfort Scott:
Periigises stin Kriti (Odoiporiko 1834)
Stef. Xanthoudidis
: Epitomos historia tis Kritis (1909)
Kritika Hronika
: volume issue 2 year 1969, volume - years 1988-1989, volume year 1990.
Eilapini: 2 volumes (1987)
Hristakis Gian-Pateraki
.: Kriti kai h Historia tis
Panagopoulos Andr
.: Platon kai Kriti
Panagopoulos Andr
.: Aristotelis kai Kriti
Louis Godart
: The disc of Phaestus (The Enigma of an Aegean Scripture) (July 1995)
Philip P. Betancoyrt
:The history of the Minoan ceramic art (1985)
Sakellarakis Giannis
: Anaskaptontas to parelthon
Sakellarakis Giannis
: Eisagogi stin arhaia helliniki thriskia (Oi kritikes rizes). 1995 Edition Vicael. Lib.
Zois Ant..:
"Knossos" To ekstatiko orama (University Publications of Crete 1996)
K.G. Stefanakis
: E Kriti mesa apo ton Omiro
Paul Phor
(Vicaelean); Sacred caverns of Crete (1996)
Jan Ellen Harrisson
: Ancient greek celebrations (1996) .
Papageorgiou Kostis;
Ta nisia tis Kritis (1996)
Hatzidakis Iosif
: Periigisis eis Kritin (1881)
Pavlos Vlastos 1893
: O gamos en Kriti (Ithi Ethima Kriton)
Pantazi Kontomihi
; Hesiodou erga (Emmetri metafrasi)
Claud Mose-Anni Snappe Courbougnone: Epitomi istoria tis arheas Hellados (1996).
The Times
: Atlas of ancient civilizations 7 Issues
The Times:
Atlas of medieval civilizations 5 Issues
The Times:  Atlas of world history 6 Issues
Newspaper <<Kathimerini>>;
Epta meres (Issues 1995,1996,1997,1998 )
Vittorio Simonelli
: Kriti-1893 Oi periigitikes anamneses tou Vittorio Simonelli. Rhethymno 1996. Translatio:, Fountoulaki Ioanna.
Company of Cretan Historical Studies: 1)Pepragmena tou ' diethnous Kritologikou synedriou (Agios Nikolaos 1981). 
Heraklion 1985 Volumes ,,C. 2) Pepragmena tou ' diethnous Kritologikou syndedriou, volume 1 (Rhethymno 1995)
Emily Vermeule : Hellas, Copper Era (1996)
Kathimerini : Pagkosmios historikos Atlas
Epitheorisis Ios : Kriti (1964)
Rene Treuil-Pascal Darcque-J.Cl.Poursat-Gilles Touchais: The Aegean Civilizations (Kardamitsas 1996)
J.B.Bury&Russwell Meiggs: History of ancient Greece (Kardamitsas 1992)
Dimitrios Tsiroglou : Lexiko, arhaistikon phraseon, Tis Neas Hellinikis Glossas (Savvalas Editions 1997)
B.Traeger : The Cretan Labyrinth, (1996)
Georg. Siettos: Ta Kritika Mystiria
Kritiki Estia: volume 5, 1994/96
Efi Sapouna-Sakellaraki: Minoikon Zoma (1971)
Nik. Platon: Zakros, the new minoan palace (1974)
N.Platon-W.C.Brice: Enepigraphoi pinakides kai pithoi grammikou systimatos  ', ek Zakrou (1975)
Siettos George : Yakinthia mystiria
Syllogos daskalon & nipiagogon N. Herakliou: Historia tis Kritis
Anna Strataridaki-Kylafi: Arhea Helliniki Istoria, Apo th Minoiki os tin Arhaiki periodi. Rhethymno 1996
John Chadwick: The Mycaenean world, Gutenberg 1997
Papathanasopoulos Thanasis: Callimachou Hymnoi (Nefeli 1996 ).
Manolis Andronikos: Herakleio museum (Ekdotiki Athinon 1995)
Hristou Tsounta: Historia tis arheas hellinikis tehnis (Athens 1928)
Btsford & Robinson : Ancient greek history (National Bank 1995)
Aggeliki Vorning: Mia syntomi istoria tou hellinikou politismou (Kastanioti Editions 1997)
Giannis & Efi Sakellaraki : Arhanes. Mia nea matia sti minoiki Kriti (Ammos Editions 1997)
Sakellarakis Giannis: Archaeologikes agonies stin Kriti tou 19ou aiona (University Publications of Crete 1998)
J.J. Pollit : The art in the Hellenistic era (Papadimas 1994)
Alexander Farnoux: Knossos, unearthing a legend
John Griffiths Pedley : Greek Art and Archaeology (London 1998)
John Chadwick: Linear B, and related scripts (1987 The Trustes of the British Museum)
Tomas Taylor : Eleusinian Bacchic Rites
Vasilakis Antonis of Thomas: <<THE CRETAN DICTIONARY>>
Vasilakis Antonis of Thomas: <<THE 147 CITIES OF ANCIENT CRETE>>.


Periscope of Science
Epistimi & Tehnologia (Science & Technology)
Papyrus Press: Historia iconographimeni
Tote: Magazine about the hellenic history...and not only
Kritikes icones: articles by St. Spanakis et al..
Vimata stin Anaptyksi (Herakleion Epimelitirion edition)
Cosmos kai Tourismos
Kritopolis (issue 2)
Apollonio phos
Stratiotiki historia
Sky Lab
Helliniko panorama


Davaras K.: Phaestus, Ag.Triada, Gortyna
Davaras K.
: Malia
frieda Vandenabeele
: The Wondrous world of Crete
Ant. Sp. Vasilakis
: Malia etc.
Ant. Sp. Vasilakis
: Knossos
Ant. Sp. Vasilakis
: Phaestus, Ag.Triada, Gortyna etc.
Hatsi-Vallianou D.
: Phaestus
Hatsi-Vallianou D.: Levina
Sakellarakis .: Mouseio Herakleiou
Soso Logiadou-Platonos: Knossos
Soso Logiadou-Platonos: Kriti
Soso Logiadou-Platonos and Nanno Marinatou: Kriti
Koufou Anna: Kriti
I. Papapostolou: Kriti
Mihailidou Anna: Knossos
Ekdotiki Athinon: Ta Hellinika Mouseia
Mondadori-Fytrakis: Mouseia tou kosmou (12 Mouseia)
Adam Ekdoseis: Kriti (small shape)
N. Psilakis: Monastiria kai Erimitiria tis Kritis (2 volumes)
N. Psilakis: Spinalogka
Drosou Bros: Kritis
Hr. Mathioulakis: Kriti
P. Karolidou: Historikos Atlas
Mprompoudakis Manolis: Panagia Kera
Drosou Bros o.e.
: Nomos Chanion, archaeologia-istoria-periigisis
Drosou Bros o.e.: Nomos Rhethymnis # # #
Drosou Bros o.e.: Nomos Lasithiou # # #
Davaras K..: To Spileo tou Psyhrou
Ant. Plymakis: To Pharaggi tis Agias Eirinis (Anat. Eparhia Selinou, 1994)
Markatatou P-Hristaki.: " E Kriti mas" (G. Lettorakis 1981)
M. Toumpis : Kriti (1990)
Panagiotakis G.: Kriti (1996)
M. Toumpis AE: Helliniki Mythologia (1995)
Adam Editions: Samaria, Faraggi .
Adam Editions: Kriti (big shaped)
Ant. Sp. Vasilakis: Kriti (I. Mathioulakis 1997)
Haitalis Dim.: Kriti
G. Despyris-N.Dramitinou:
Kriti, stous palmous tis kardias tis (Toumpis M. 1996)
Marmataki Bros: Kriti
Andrianakis Mihail: E palia poli ton Hanion (Adam editions, 1997).


1on.gif (2742 bytes)